In this era of competitive world, success of any organization depends on its human resource. Job satisfaction is an integral component of organization climate and it is an important element in the management employee’s relationship. Job satisfaction means individuals emotional reaction to the job. The degree of satisfaction is determined by the outcomes against the desire of employees from their respective jobs. Job satisfaction is dynamic, as it can go as quickly as it comes. Job satisfaction is pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experience. Banks are no exception to this. The banking industry are being a service – oriented industry, its manpower is its prime asset. People at the front office as well as back office are catalytic agents for their banks. The efficiency and inefficiency in delivering service to the customer has a direct bearing on the organization success. If they are highly satisfied they produce more and it is profitable for the organization. So in this competitive environment it is necessary to know the employees views towards their job and to measure the level of satisfaction with various aspects of their job. Efficient human resource management and maintaining high job satisfaction level in the Banks will determine not only the performance of the bank but also the growth and performance of the entire economy. So it is very important to manage human resource effectively and to find whether its employees are satisfied or not, if they are satisfied, they will work with commitment and project a positive image of the organisation.
In short job satisfaction is a synchronization of what an organization requires of its employees and what the employees are seeking from organization. Today the becoming sector plays a vital role in the overall development of the country. It serves the community in several ways. Banks and financial institutions have significant contribution in the development process of the country. Due to Government and NGO’s support the percentage female participation is increasing the all the sector. To uphold the increasing part of female employees with the goal of government (women empowerment) it becomes important to measure the job satisfaction of these employees.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Banking industry in India is engaged in providing various types of financial services to the customers. The service rendered by the Public Sector Banks will be more efficient if the employees of the banks are a satisfied lot. Satisfied employees provide better service to its customers as well as to the organization. The gradual preeminence of women in the power hierarchy , overcoming workplace discrimination in the corporate sector displays not the change in the outlook and the perception of the management , but the strenuous efforts made by dynamic women in that direction. In Indian society, women’s role traditionally has been of child bearing and home making while men performed the activities concerned with relations of the group to external situations including goal achievement. Now the whole pattern of male –female roles are undergoing a considerable change. Women employees have gradually started to dominate the work force recently especially in banks. So, the researcher has undertaken the research on the topic “Job Satisfaction of Women Bank Employees – in Public Sector banks in Virudhunagar District”.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as below:
- To analyze the socio-economic status of the women employees of public sector banks.
- To measure the extent of job satisfaction among women employees of Public Sector Banks.
SAMPLING DESIGN AND METHOD
For the purpose of the study, the researcher selected the branches of public sector and private sector banks on the basis of random and stratified technique. Random and stratified sampling is the least expensive and least time consuming of all sampling techniques. The sampling units are accessible, easy to measure and cooperative. The researcher personally contacted 30 women employees in public sector banks in the Virudhunagar region on the basis of convenience. They were appraised about the purpose of the study and request was made to them to fill up the questionnaire with correct and unbiased information.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
The data so obtained was subjected to analysis and interpretation and the findings drawn are as follows:
Table 1: Age of Employees
|S. No||Age||Public Sector Bank||Total
|2||30 – 40||16||53.33|
From the above Table it is inferred that out of 30 employees, 20.00% of the employees fall into the age category of below 30, 53.33% belongs to the age group 30-40 and the rest 26.67% of the employees are of above 40 age.
Table 2: Marital Status
|S. No||Marital Status||Public Sector Bank||Total
From the above Table it is inferred that out of 30 respondents 23.33% are single or unmarried and the rest 76.67% employees are married.
Table 3: Educational Qualification
|S. No||Education Level||Public Sector Bank||Total
As far as educational background of the respondents is concerned, 66.67% employees are graduate and rest 33.33% are post graduate.
Table 4: Income Level
|S. No||Income Level||Public Sector Bank||Total
|1||Less than Rs.15000||2||6.67|
|2||Rs.15000 – 25000||8||26.67|
|3||Rs.25000 – 35000||12||40.00|
|4||More than Rs.35000||8||26.67|
|Total Number Respondents Monthly Income||894000|
On the basis of the above Table researcher finds out the monthly income level of the employees. It is inferred that 6.67% of the employees are less than Rs.15000, 26.67% earn a monthly income between Rs.15000 to 25000, 40.00% earn a monthly income between Rs.25000 to 35000 and remaining 26.67% of the employees earn income more than Rs.35000.
Table 5: Job Satisfaction of Women Bank Employees
|S. No||Education Level||Public Sector Bank||Total
Above Table inferred the satisfaction level with the nature of job find out by the researcher. It shows that 13.33% of the employees are highly satisfied with the nature of their job, 36.67% are satisfied with their job, 33.33% are neutral and 16.67% are highly dissatisfied with the nature of their job.
KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity
|KMO||Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity|
|0.269||Chi-square Value||P value|
It could be seen from Table that the Bartlett’s Test is significant with P = 0.000 being less than 0.05. Sampling significant measured using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) of 0.269 is taken as acceptable. Thus, the factor analysis may be considered an appropriate technique for analyzing the data.
Results and Interpretation
The rotated factor matrix for the variables relating to the factor which are the most important activities opinion regarding the job satisfaction of the women employees in public sector banking operation are given in Table. Table gives the following received by the factors under F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5.
PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS
Rotated Component Matrixa,b
|S. No.||Statements||Rotated Factor Loadings||Extraction
|1.||Heavy Work load||0.948||-0.183||0.143||-0.009||-0.117||.967|
|3.||Personal and family problems||0.800||0.165||-0.262||0.406||0.004||.901|
|5.||Psychological stress and frustration||0.167||0.854||-0.172||0.347||0.113||.919|
|6.||Prizes and awards||-0.286||0.841||0.275||0.105||0.168||.904|
|8.||Freedom in job||0.141||0.022||0.846||-0.115||-0.050||.753|
|9.||Salary and allowances||0.288||0.138||0.779||0.086||0.256||.782|
|12.||Promotion and Retirement policy||-0.043||0.378||0.047||0.889||0.085||.945|
|15.||Others benefits and services||-0.435||0.751||0.274||-0.193||0.657||.899|
|Percentage of Variance||28.442||50.817||69.382||77.985||86.245|
Source : Computed Data
Note : Principal Factor Method with Orthogonal Varimax Rotation is used to Extract Factors
VARIABLES WITH THE HIGHEST FACTOR LOADINGS FOR OPINION REGARDING THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION OF THE WOMEN IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR BANK EMPLOYEES
|Factor||Name of Newly Extracted Dimensions (Factor)||Selected Statements Variables||Factor Loadings|
|F1||Work-Life Balance||Heavy Work load||0.948|
|F2||Prizes and Awards||Psychological stress and frustration||0.854|
|F3||Job Security||Freedom in job||0.846|
|F4||Career Development||Personal relationship||0.924|
|F5||Benefits and Facilities||Training||0.733|
Source: Computed Data
It is inferred from the table 13 that the statement, heavy work load (0.948), psychological stress and frustration (0.854), freedom in job of (0.846) personal relationship of (0.924) and training of (0.733) are the statements with the highest factor loading under the dimensions namely, work-life balance (F1), prizes and awards (F2), job security (F3), career development (F4) and benefits and facilities (F5). Hence, these are the identified impact of job satisfaction of women bank employees.
The result of the study indicates that layoff threats, quick turnover, less welfare schemes, and less scope for vertical growth increase job dissatisfaction. On the other hand, secure job environment, welfare policies, and job stability increase the degree of job satisfaction. Efficient human resource management and maintaining higher job satisfaction level in banks determine not only the performance of the bank but also affect the growth and performance of the entire economy. So, for the success of banking, it is very important to manage human resource effectively and to find whether its employees are satisfied or not. Only if they are satisfied, they will work with commitment and project a positive image of the organization.
- Bernardi, N. Kowaltowski, D.C. (2006). Environmental comfort in school buildings: A case study of awareness and participation of users. Environment and behavior, 38(2), 155-172.
- Blum L Milton and Naylor C James. Industrial psychology: its theoretical and social foundation . New Delhi: CBS publisher. 1st edition. pp 364-380.
- Chandan S Jit. (2005). Oranizational behavior. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House pvt.Ltd. 3rdpp 83-85
- Chigot, P. (2005). Effects of sound in offices: subjective experience vs. objective assessment. Facilities, 23(3/4).152-63.
- Edwards, L., Torcellini, P. (2002). A literature review of the effects of natural light on building occupants . National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Colorado.
- Karasek, R., Heorell, T. (1990). Health work stress: productivity and the reconstruction of working life. Basic Books Inc, New York.
- Leaman, A., B. Bordass, (1999). Productivity in buildings: the ‘killer’Variables. Building Research & Information, 27(1), 4- 19.
- Lu, L. (1999). Work motivation, job stress and employees’ well-being. Journal of Applied Management Studies, 8, 61-72.